**Free Programs**
** Joy's PC Monte Carlo Programs.** The programs inlcuded in self-extracting file are:

**SS_MC** - a single scttering simulation for thin or bulk samples with trajectory plotting.

**PS_MC** - a plural scattering simulation for bulk samples with trajectory plotting.

**AEMMC** - uses SS_MC to investigate X-ray production in thin films.

**PHIROZ** - uses PS_MC to determine and plot depth variation of X-ray production.

**SE_MC** - computes and plots scattering for thin film on a bulk substrate.

**EBIC_MC** - current the current gain for an Au on Si Schottkey diode.

** Joy's Mac Monte Carlo Programs.** Mac versions of David C. Joy's PC programs.

** A Data Base on Electron-Solid Interactions by David C. Joy**
**MC programs at Michigan Technological University** Monte Carlo Simulations of electron trajectories and X-ray emmission in solids. This software is a fat binary and will
run native on the Macintosh computers that use the powerPC chip. (about 10x faster than the 68k/FPU version).
The simulations are also available as Java Applets.

** Wilson's Mac Monte Carlo Programs.** The programs are used to calculate the x-rays
generated from a progressive scan of points across multiple interfaces. This package consist three programs:

**fsexray** - the Monte Carlo
program. Produces a set ofr arrays for each element which contain the x-ray intensity at a specific point in the specimen,

**xray** - determines the x-ray intensity at the entrance to the detector. Includes absorption in the specimen but no detector absorption, etc.,

**imagexray** - convertes the fsexray results to an array of 16
bit unsigned integers suitable for display in the PD program Image.

** Cormonte PC Monte Carlo Program.** The file Cormonte.exe is a self-extracting ZIP file and contains the NIST Monte Carlo simulation routines. The program runs on a PC or compatible computers under DOS.

** Radzimski's Mac Monte Carlo Program.**. This program is futher development of the program written by J. C. Russ (1990). It calculates various parameters related to electron-beam interactions with solid related to absorbed and backscattered electrons. It accepts multi-element section and multi-element structures. It uses Rutherford or Mott cross section for scattering.

** Casino Monte Carlo Program** from Dominique Drouin and Pierre Hovington under the supervision of Raynald Gauvin at mechanical engineering department of the University of Sherbroke (Canada). Program Casino version 1.0 runs under DOS and Unix systems and allows calculation of backscattered electrons and X-Ray signal under multi-layers samples, grain boundary, spherical inclusion and step edge.

**SEMLP: A Monte Carlo Simulation Program for SEM Imaging.** Author: David C. Joy. For more information see the article in the journal Microbeam Analysis, 1995.

**MONSEL-II: Monte Carlo Simulation of SEM Signals for Linewidth Metrology.** Author: Jeremiah R. Lowney. For more information see the article in the journal Micobeam Analysis, 1995.

**NIST Microanalysis Monte Carlo Electron Trajectory Simulation Program (NIST Micro MC).** For more information see the article in the journal Microbeam Analysis, 1995.

** Monte Carlo Program in Basic.** Plural scattering MC program in TurboBasic for bulk samples. Program runs under DOS and Hercules, EGA and VGA graphic card and is compatible with QuickBasic, Visual Basic for DOS and Windows.

**Monte Carlo Particle Program.** For PC with VGA resolution, program runs under DOS. Author:

Dave King
**Win X-Ray Program**: This program is a Monte Carlo simulation of electron trajectory in solid. This new Monte Carlo programs, Ray, is a extension of the well known Monte Carlo program CASINO, which includes statistical distributions for the backscattered electrons, trapped electrons, energy loss and phi rho z curves for X-ray. The new added features in Ray are: the complete simulation of the X-ray spectrum, the charging effect for insulating specimen.

**Commercial Programs**
**Electron Flight Simulator** version 3.1 for Windws from

** Small World.** Program allows you to model bulk samples, thin films on a substrate and particles and runs under Windows 3.x and Windows 95. A distributor is

SPI Supplies.
**Monte Carlo Program** for Windws from

** Evex. **
Program allows you to model bulk samples and thin films and runs under
Windows 95/98/2000/NT.

**Metrologia Simulation Software** for Windows 95 or Windows NT. Program allows you to Thin Film modeling, Stepper Aerial Image Modeling, Brightfield Confocal and Coherence Probe Optical Simulation, Scanning Electron Microscope Modeling and Diffraction Grating Simulation.

**Program Listings**
David C. Joy,

**Monte Carlo Modeling for Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis**, Oxford University Press, New York, London, 1995, ISBN 0-19-508874-3.

Reimer L. and Stelter D.,

**FORTRAN 77 Monte Carlo program for minicomputers using Mott cross-sections**, Scanning, Vol. 8, 265-277, 1986.

J. C. Russ, Z.Radzimski, A. Buczkowski and L. Maynard,

**Monte Carlo Modeling of Electron Signals from Heterogeous Specimens with Nonplanar Surfaces**,
Journal of Computer Assisted Microscopy, Vol. 2, 59-89, 1990.

J. Henoc and F. Maurice,

** A Flexible and Complete Monte Carlo Procedure for
the Study of the Choice of Parameters**, in Electron Probe Quantitation, K. F. J.
Heinrich and D. E. Newbury, Eds., Plenum Press, 105-143, 1990.

**WWW Sites**
**Parallel Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Microscopy**, Sandia National Laboratories, Technologies Database.

** A list of Web sites on Monte Carlo simulation of electronic transport in semiconductors**
**Books**
David C. Joy,

**Monte Carlo Modeling for Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis**, Oxford University Press, New York, London, 1995, ISBN 0-19-508874-3.

**Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Electron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy**, (Eds. K. F. J. Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz), U. S. Department of Commerece/National Bureau of Standards (now NIST), NBS Special Publication #460, 1976.

J. R. Lowney and E. Marx,

**User's Manual for the Program MONSEL-1: Monte Carlo Simulation of SEM Signals for Linewidth Metrology**, U.S. Departments of Commerce, NIST Special Publication 400-95, 1994.

Curgenven L, Duncumb P.,

**Simulation of Electron Trajectories in a Solid State Target by a Simple Monte Carlo Technique**, Report No. 303, Tube Investments Reserach, Walden, England, 1971.

**Journal Articles**
A. Hieke, Monte Carlo simulations of 1keV to 100keV electron trajectories from vacuum through solids into air and resulting current density and energy profiles, Nanotech 2008 Conference Program Abstract.

Xiao, S.M.; Zhang, Z.M.; Li, H.M.; Ding, Z.J,

**Monte Carlo Simulation of Scanning Electron Microscope Image of Sidewall Shape for Linewidth Measurement**, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Volume 9, Number 2, February 2009 , pp. 1655-1658(4).

Kathawala, G.A.; Winstead, B.; Ravaioli, U.,

**Monte Carlo simulations of double-gate MOSFETs, Electron Devices**, IEEE Transactions on
Volume 50, Issue 12, Dec. 2003 Page(s): 2467 - 2473.

Zhenyu Tan, YueYuan Xia, Xiangdong Liub and Minwen Zhao,

**Monte-Carlo simulation of low-energy electron scattering in PMMA – using stopping powers from dielectric formalism**, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 77, Issues 3-4, April 2005, Pages 285-291.

Francesc Salvat, José M. Fernández-Varea, et al.,

**PENELOPE: A Code System for Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron and Photon Transport**, Workshop Proceedings, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 5-7 November 2001.

R. Gauvin, P. Hovington and D. Drouin,

**Quantification of Spherical Inclusions in the Scanning Electron Microscope
Using Monte Carlo Simulations**, Scanning, Vol. 7, 202-219, 1995.

T. D. Ly, D. G. Howitt, M. Farrens and A. B. Harker,

**Monte Carlo Calculations for Specimens with Microstructures, Scanning**, Vol.17, 220-226, 1995.

K. Murata, M. Yasuda and H. Kawata,

**Effects of the Indroduction of the Discrete Energy Loss Process into Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Scattering**,
Scanning, Vol. 17, 228-234, 1995.

R. L. Myklebust and D. E. Newbury,

**Monte Carlo Modeling of Secondary X-Ray Fluorescence across Phase Boundaries in Electron Probe Microanalysis**,
Scanning, Vol. 17, 235-242, 1995.

L. A. Bakaleinikov and V. V. Tretyakov,

**The Influence of Elastic and Ionizaion Cross-Section Approximation on the Result of Monte Carlo Calcuations**,
Scanning, Vol. 17, 243-249, 1995.

R. Browning, et.al.,

**Low-Energy Electron/Atom Elastic Scattering Cross Sections from 0.1-30 keV**,
Scanning, Vol. 17, 250-253, 1995.

Reimer L. and Lodding B.,

**Calulation and tabulation of Mott cross-sections for large-angle electron scattering**,
Scanning, Vol. 6, 128-151, 1984.

J. R. Lowney,

**Monte Carlo Simulation of SEM Signals for Lithographic Metrology**, Scanning,
Vol. 17, Supplement V, V-11, 1995.

R. Gauvin, D. Drouin and P. Hovington,

**The Use of Monte Carlo Simulations in Scanning Eectron
Microscopy (SEM) to Understand Contrast Mechanisms of SEM Images of Bi-Phased Materials at Low
Voltages**, Sacanning, Vol. 17, Supplement V, V-12, 1995.

L. A. Bakaleinikov et.al.,

**Effects of the Energy Straggling in the Inelastic Collision on the Result of
Monte Carlo Simulation**, Scanning, Vol. 17, Supplement V, V-12-13, 1995.

D. E. Newbury,

**Progress toward Establishing a Thin Film X-Ray Database for Testing Monte Carlo and
Analytic Model Calculations**, Scanning, Vol. 17, Supplement V, V-13, 1995.

D.C.Joy et.al.,

**Electron Stopping Powers-A Progress Report**, Scanning, Vol. 17, Supplement V, V-13,
1995.

Z. J. Ding and R. Shimizu,

**A Monte Carlo Modeling of Electron Interaction with Solids Incuding Cascade
Secondary Electron Production**, Scanning, Vol. 17, Supplement V, 1995.

D. G. Howitt and T. D. Ly,

**Monte Carlo Calculations of Backscattered Electron Images**, Scanning, Vol. 17,
Supplement V, 1995.

T. D. Ly and D. G. Howitt,

**A Monte Carlo Calcullation of the Backscattering Coefficient for a Multilayer Sample**,
Scanning, Vol. 14, 11-15, 1992.

R. Gauvin, G. L'Esperance and S. ST-Laurent,

**Quantitative X-Ray Microanalysis of Spherical Inclusion
Embeded in a Matrix Using a SEM and Monte Carlo Simulations**, Scanning, Vol. 14, 37-48, 1992.

D. Drouin, R. Gauvin and D. C. Joy,

**Computation of Polar Angle Collisions from Partial Elastic Mott Cross-Sections**,
Scanning, Vol. 16, 67-77, 1994.

D. B. Holt and E. Napchan,

**Quantitation of SEM EBIC and CL Signals Using Monte Carlo Electron-Trajectory Simulations**,
Scanning, Vol. 16, 78-86, 1994.

D. C. Joy and S. Luo,

**An Empirical Stopping Power Rellationship for Low-Energy Electrons**,
Scanning, Vol. 11, 176-180, 1989.

V. Desai and L. Reimer,

**Calculation of the Signal of Backscattered Electrons Using a Diffusion Matrix
from Monte Carlo Calculations**, Scanning, Vol. 12, 1-4, 1990.

Z. Czyewski and D. C. Joy,

**Monte Carlo Simulation of CL and EBIC Contrast for Isolated Dislocations**,
Scanning, Vol. 12, 4-12, 1990.

A. A. Firsova, et. al.,

**Comparison of a Simple Model of BSE Signal Formation amd Surface Reconstruction
with Monte Carlo Calculations**, Scanning, Vol. 13, 363-368, 1991.

Z. Czyzewski and D. C. Joy,

**Calculation of Secondary Electron Production Using a Diffusion Matrix**,
Scanning, Vol. 13, 227-232, 1991.

A. Jablonski and G. Gergely,

**Mott Factors of P, V, Fe, Ga, As, Pd, In, Ta in W for 500-3000 eV Electrons**,
Scanning, Vol. 11, 29-42, 1989.

T. D. Ly and D. G. Howitt,

**A Monte Carlo Calculation of the Backscattered Coefficients for Multillayer Samples**,
Proceedings of Scanning 91, I-23, Vol. 13, Suppl I, 1991.

D. E. Newbury,

**A Comparison of Monte Carlo and Phi-Rho-Z Calculations of Thin Films**, Scanning,
Proceedings of Scanning 92, II-13, Vol. 14, Suppl. II, 1992.

D. C. Joy,

**High Resolution Backscatter Imaging**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 92, II-13, Vol. 14, Suppl. II, 1992.

T. D. Ly and D. G. Howitt,

**Monte Carlo Calculations of Backscattered Image Intensities**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 92, II-14, Vol. 14, Suppl. II, 1992.

L. Pogany, et.aL ,

**Quantitative Magnetic Contrast (Part I. Experiment)**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 92, II-24, Vol. 14, Suppl. II, 1992.

L. Pogany, et.aL ,

**Quantitative Magnetic Contrast (Part II Teory)**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 92, II-25, Vol. 14, Suppl. II, 1992.

J. T. Armstrong,

**Accurate Quantitative Electron Microbeam Analysis Using Corrections Based on Monte
Carlo Algorithms**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-1, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

J. D. Michael, et. al.,

**Massively Parallel Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron-Solid Interactions in Electron
Microscopy**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-1, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

R. Gauvin, D. Drouin and P. Hovington,

**A Monte Carlo Program to Simulate SEM Analysis of Embeded
Inclusion**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-1-2, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

D. E. Newbury and R. L. Myklebust,

**Monte Carlo Modeling of Secondary Fluorescence at Phase
Boundaries**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-2, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

K. Murata, et. al.,

**Effects of the Introduction of the Discrete Energy Loss Process into Monte Carlo
Simulation of Electron Scattering**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-2, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

D. C. Joy,

**A Database on Electron-Solid Interactions**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-3, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

Z. J. Radzimski and J. C. Russ,

**BSE Image Simulations of 3-D Structures: Effect of Electron Beam and
Detector Characteristics**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-5, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

R. Browning, at. al.,

**Electron/Atom Elastic Scattering Cross Sections from 0.1-30 keV**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-6, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

J. R. Lowney,

**Use of Monte Carlo Modeling for Interpreting SEM Linewidth Measurements**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-8-9, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

S. Henstra,

**A Monte Carlo Program for Electron Microscopy with Application to Metrology**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-9, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

J. W. Nunn,

**Application of Monte Carlo Modeling in the Measurement of Photomask Linewidths at the
National Physical Laboratory**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-10, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

A. E. Vladar, S. D. Davilla,

**Is Your Scanning Elctron Microscope Hi-Fi**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-11, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

D. G. Howitt, et. al.,

**Monte Carlo Calulations for Heterogeneous Microstructures**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-12, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

M. T. Postek, et. al.,

**Electron Beam Interaction Modeling as Applied to X-Ray Lithography Mask SEM
Linewidth Metrology**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-56, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

R. G. Sartore,

**Modeling the Effect of Gaussian Beam Width on the Measurement Accuracy of Linewidths
under Glass Using EDXA**, Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-57-58, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

T. D. Ly, D. G. Howitt and M. K. Farrens,

**Image Calculations From Specimens of Different Shape**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-58-59, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

P. Hovington, et. al.,

**Development of a Monte Carlo Program for Low-Energy Work**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-60-61, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

L. A. Bakaleinikov and V. V. Tretyakov,

**The Influence of Elastic and Ionization Cross Section
Approximation on the Result of the Monte Carlo Simulation**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-61-62, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

D. Drouin, et. al.,

**Simulation of SEM Screen Image by a Monte Carlo Method**,
Scanning, Proceedings of Scanning 94, IV-97, Vol.16, Suppl. IV, 1994.

D. E. Newbury,

**Monte Carlo Electron Trajectory Simulation for Electron Probe Analysis: Present Utility
and Future Possibilities**, Microbeam Analysis, Vol. 1, 9-17, 1992.

D. C. Joy,

**The Future of Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fundamental Measurements of Electron-
Solid Interaction**, Microbeam Analysis, Vol. 1, 19-27, 1992.

D. C. Joy,

**SEMLP: A Monte Carlo Simulation Program for SEM Imaging**, Microbeam Analysis,
Vol. 4, 125-129, 1995.

J. R. Lowney,

**MONSEL-II: Monte Carlo Simulation of SEM Signals for Linewidth Metrology**,
Microbeam Analysis, Vol. 4, 131-136, 1995.

D. E. Newbury and R. L. Myklebust,

**NIST Micro MC: A User's Guide to the NIST Microanalysis Monte
Carlo Electron Trajectory Simulation Program**, Microbeam Analysis, Vol. 4, 165-175, 1995.

Z. -J. Ding, Z. Q. Wu and R. Shimazu,

**Monte Carlo Simulation of Spatial Distribution of X-ray Production
and Its Fractal Property Analsysis**, Microbeam Analysis, Vol. 3, 79-86, 1994.

L. Reimer and R. Senkel,

**Monte Carlo simulations in low voltage scanning electron microscopy**,
Optik, Vol. 98, 85-94, 1995.

Newbury, D. E. an Myklebust, R. L.,

**Monte Carlo Electron Trajectory Calcylations of Electron Interactions
in Samples with Special Geometries**, in Electron Beam Iteractions with Solids for Microscopy, Microanalysis
, and Microlithography, D. F. Kyser, H. Niedrig, D. E. Newbury, and R. Shimizu, Eds., Scanning Electron
Microscopy, Inc., Chicago, 1984, p.153.

Reimer, L. and Krefting, E. R.,

**The Effect of Scatteing Models on the Results of Monte Carlo Calculations**
in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 45-60, 1976.

R. Browning, at. al.,

**An elastic cross section model for use with Monte Carlo simulations of low enegy
electron scattering from high atomic number targets**, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Vol. 9 (6), 3578-3581, 1991.

D. S. Bright, R. Myklebust and D. E. Newbury,

**Streo presentation of Monte
Carlo electron trajectory simulation**, Journal of Microscopy, Vo. 136,
113-120, 1984.

D. C. Joy,

**An introduction to Monte Carlo simulations**, EUREM 88, York,
England, 23-32, 1988.

K. Murata, T. Matsukawa and R. Shimizu,

**Monte Carlo Calculations on Electron
Scattering in a Solid Target**, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics,
Vol. 10, 679-685, 1971.

R. Gauvin and D. Drouin,

**Fractal Behaviour of Electron Scattering in Solids**,
Scanning, Vol. 14, 313-323, 1992.

D. C. Joy,

**Resolution in low scanning electron microscopy**, Journal of
Microscopy, Vol.142, 1-10, 1985.

D. C. Joy,

**The interpertation of EBIC images using Monte Carlo simulations**,
Journal of Microscopy, Vol.143, 233-248, 1986.

R. Shimizu and Z.-J. Ding,

** Electron Scattering in Solids**, Microbeam Analysis-1990,
San Francisco Press, 6-12, 1990.

D. F. Kyser,

**Monte Carlo Calculations for Electron Microscopy, Microanalysis,
and Microlithography**, Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM Inc, AMF O'Hare,
I, 47-62, 1981.

J. R. Michael, G. Cliff and D. B. Williams,

**A microcomputer-based Monte Carlo
simulation and its application to grain boundary segregation studies in the
electron microscope**, Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM Inc, AMF O'Hare,
IV, 1697-1705, 1984.

G. Love, M. G.C. Cox and V. D. Scott,

**A simple Monte Carlo method for
simulating electron-solid interactions and its application to electron probe
microanalysis**, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 10, 7-23, 1977.

K. F. J. Heinrich,

**The Role of Monte Carlo Calculations in Electron Probe
Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy**, in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 1-4, 1976.

H. E. Bishop,

**The History and Development of Monte Carlo Methods for Use in
X-Ray Microanalysis**, in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 5-13, 1976.

D. E. Newbury and H. Yakowitz,

**Studies of the Distribution of Signals in the
SEM/EPMA by Monte Carlo Electron Trajectory Calculations**,
in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 15-44, 1976.

J. Henoc and F. Maurice,

**Characteristics of a Monte Carlo Program for Microanalysis
Study of Energy Loss**, in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 61-95, 1976.

C. J. Powell,

**Evaluation of Formulas for Inner-Shell Ionization Cross Sections**,
in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 97-104, 1976.

R. L. Myklebust, D. E. Newbury and H. Yakowitz,

**MBS Monte Carlo Electron
Trajectory Calculation Program**, in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 105-128, 1976.

D. F. Kyser and K. Murata,

**Application of Monte Carlo Simulation to Electron
Microprobe Analysis of Thin Films on Substrates**,
in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 129-138, 1976.

O. C. Wells,

**Calculation of Type II Magnetic Contrast in the Low-Loss Image
in the Scanning Electron Microscope**,
in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 139-150, 1976.

D. E. Newbury, H. Yakowitz and R. L. Myklebust,

** A Study of Type II Magnetic Domain Contrast in the
SEM by Monte Carlo Electron Trajectory Simulation**,
in Use of Monte Carlo Calculations in Eletron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, K. F. J.
Heinrich, D. E. Newbury, and H. Yakowitz, Eds., NBS Special Publications 460, Washington, 151-164, 1976.

K. Raouadi and Z. Fakhfakh,

**Monte Carlo Calculation of the X-Ray Depth Distributions in an Aluminium Target**, Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct., Vol. 6, No. 4, 1995, 415-420.

P. Karduck and A. Richthofen,

**EPMA Sputter Depth Profiling: A New Technique for Quantitative in-Depth Analysis of Layered Structures**, Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct., Vol. 6, No. 4, 1995, 421-432.

K. Murata, M. Yasuda, H. Kawata,

**Monte Carlo Simulation of Secondary Electron Emission From Thin Film/Substrates Tragets**, Scanning Microscopy, Vol.10, No. 3, 1996.

E. Aosta, et.al.,

**Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Backscattering in Solids Using a General-Purpose Computer Code**, Scanning Microscopy, Vol.10, No. 3, 1996.

D. C. Joy, et.al.,

**Experimental Measurements of Electron Stopping Power at Low Energies**, Scanning Microscopy, Vol.10, No. 3, 1996.

J. R. Lowney,

**Application of Monte Carlo Simulations to Critical Dimension Metrology in a Scanning Electron Microscope**, Scanning Microscopy, Vol.10, No. 3, 1996.

T. D. Ly, et.al,

**Monte Carlo Calculations for Specimens with Microstructures**, Scanning, Vol. 17, 1995, 220-226.

Z. J. Radzimski and J. C. Russ,

** Image Simulation Using Monte Carlo Methods: Electron Beam and Detector Characteristics**, Scanning, Vol. 17, 1995, 276-280.

D. C. Joy,

**A Database on Electron-Solid Interactions**, Scanning, Vol. 17, 1995, 270-275.

P. Hovington, et.al.

**CASINO: A New Monte Carlo Code in C Language for Electron Beam Interactions-Part III: Stopping Power at Low Energies**, Scanning, Vol. 19, 1997, 29-35.

P. Hovington, D. Drouin and R. Gauvin,

**CASINO: A New Monte Carlo Code in C Language for Electron Beam Interactions-Part I: Description of the Program**, Scanning, Vol. 19, 1997, 1-14.

P. Hovington, D. Drouin and R. Gauvin,

**CASINO: A New Monte Carlo Code in C Language for Electron Beam Interactions-Part II: Tabulated Values of the Mott Cross Section**, Scanning, Vol. 19, 1997, 20-28.

P. Hovington, R. Gauvin, D. Drouin,

**Choosing the Optimum Accelerating Voltage (E0) to Visualize Sub-Micron Precipitates with a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope**,
Volume 19, Number 6, September (1997), 438.

D.R. Cousens and D.C. Joy,

**Monte Carlo Study of the Position of Phase Boundaries in Backscattered Electron Images**, Volume 19, Number 8, November (1997), 547.