Home mag. Janez Toplišek

C o n t e n t s
for the book:
Electronic commerce


1.  INTRODUCTION 1

2.  THE FORMS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE 3
    2.1  Terminology 3
    2.2  Primary and secondary technologies 6
            2.2.1  Primary technology examples 7
                    2.2.1.1  Basic communications technologies 7
                    2.2.1.2  Networks 7
            2.2.2 Data services 9
    2.3  Characteristic categories of electronic commerce 13
            2.3.1  Transition from data services to electronic transactions/commerce 13
            2.3.2  E-commerce categories 15
    2.4  E-commerce common features 21

3.  ELECTRONIC MESSAGE (RECORD) 25
    3.1  Dematerialized transactions 25
    3.2  Electronic signing 26
            3.2.1  The concept and function of the signature 26
            3.2.2  Electronic or digital signature? 30
            3.2.3  Technological solutions for electronic signing 30
                    3.2.3.1  The stated name as a signature 31
                    3.2.3.2  Group of characters as a signature 31
                    3.2.3.3  Vocalized name, video message 32
                    3.2.3.4  Digitized handwritten signature 33
                    3.2.3.5  Digital signature 37
                    3.2.3.6  Card-signature 40
                    3.2.3.7  Biometric methods 41
                    3.2.3.8  Combined signature methods 41
            3.2.4  The needed infrastructure for electronic signing 41
            3.2.5  The electronic signature functions summary 46
    3.3  Documenting the electronic transactions 49
    3.4  Electronic notarization 53
    3.5  The legal capacity of electronic message 57
            3.5.1  Writing 57
            3.5.2  Form requirement 59
            3.5.3  Electronic expression of will 61
            3.5.4  Offer acceptance 63
            3.5.5  Time and place of agreement 64
            3.5.6  Electronic message evidence 64

4.  ELECTRONIC ADDRESSING 73
    4.1  The structure and function of e-address 73
    4.2  Global regulation of electronic addressing 76
    4.3  Electronic addresses assignment and registration 79
    4.4  The name and e-address 83
    4.5  Trade mark and domain 88
    4.6  Electronic addresses trading 98

5.  PROTECTION OF ELECTRONIC DATA  101
    5.1  Protection or data security 103
    5.2  Informational privacy right 103
    5.3  Some technology derived risks 104
            5.3.1  Growth disproportion between technology and law 104
            5.3.2  Security technologies 105
            5.3.3  Communication technologies 105
            5.3.4  The forms of data collection and processing 108
            5.3.5  Saving and erasing of data 110
            5.3.6  Hidden data collecting 111
    5.4  The processing of public accessible data 114
    5.5  Legal regulation of electronic data protection 115
            5.5.1  Rules and principles for all kinds of data 115
            5.5.2  Special data groups 117
                    5.5.2.1  Communication regulations 117
                    5.5.2.2  Electronic services 119
                    5.5.2.3  Public administration data 122
                    5.5.2.4  Health services 123
                    5.5.2.5  Consumer / user protection 124
                    5.5.2.6  Public media 128
                    5.5.2.7  Employee protection 129
                    5.5.2.8  Specific forms of data processing 131
                    5.5.2.9  Transborder personal data flows 131
            5.5.3  Autonomous regulation and international standards 134

6.  PRIVACY 139
    6.1  Right to privacy 139
    6.2  Privacy in electronic environment 143
            6.2.1  Anonymity, pseudonymity 143
            6.2.2  Used encryption techniques 145
            6.2.3  Obligations of communication operators 148
    6.3  Employee privacy 150
    6.4  Unsolicited electronic messages 154

7.  JURISDICTION IN OPEN ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENTS 161
    7.1  Choice of law - choice of jurisdiction 161
    7.2  Virtual space 162
    7.3  Jurisdiction of Slovenian court 165
    7.4  Jurisdiction of foreign court 167
    7.5  Some foreign experiences 168
    7.6  Autonomous stipulations and electronic arbitration 170
    7.7  Non-legal ways of conflicts resolving 171

8.  SEPARATION OF DUTIES AMONG PARTICIPANTS 173
    8.1  Participants chain 174
    8.2  Telecommunications operator 178
    8.3  Internet connection provider 180
    8.4  Electronic services provider 183
    8.5  Contents provider 190
            8.5 1  Provider's own content 195
            8.5.2  Others content 197
    8.6  Consumer - user 200
    8.7  Legal ways of mastering risks 202

9.  NEW COPYRIGHT QUESTIONS 205
    9.1  New regulations for new circumstances? 207
            9.1.1  Electronic authorship 207
            9.1.2  Author 210
            9.1.3  Legal protection of electronic contents 212
    9.2  Non protected electronic contents 216
    9.3  Web-linking 218
    9.4  Temporary information saving 223
    9.5  Personal electronic messages 224
    9.6  Conditional access services 225
    9.7  Electronic publishing 226
    9.8  Electronic data bases 230
    9.9  Technical ways for protecting intellectual property 231
    9.10  Authorship marking 233

10.  NEW WAYS OF ELECTRONIC CONTRACTING 235
    10.1  Web site development agreement 236
    10.2  Internet marketing agreement 238
    10.3  Linking agreement) 241
            10.3.1  Linking approval 242
            10.3.2  Link license agreement) 242
            10.3.3  Revenue-sharing linking agreement) 243
    10.4  General business terms 245
    10.5  Electronic contracting ("mouse-click-agreement") 248

11.  CONSUMER - USER 253
    11.1  Electronic consumer and open space 253
    11.2  Typical risks and possible solutions 255
            11.2.1  New technologies 255
            11.2.2  Physical distance and lack of information 255
            11.2.3  After-sales risks 256
            11.2.4  Fraud, unethical business 256
            11.2.5  The right to rescind from contract 257
            11.2.6  Payment mechanisms 257
            11.2.7  Consumer's effective choices and police cooperation 258
            11.2.8  Legal nodes 259
    11.3  Electronic provider's responsibility 259
    11.4  Global consumer - user 261

12.  ELECTRONIC DEMOCRACY 265
    12.1  Legal and political clearness 267
    12.2  Freedom of expression and electronic censorship 269
    12.3  Freedom of information 274
    12.4  Access to public information 277
            12.4.1  The right to public information and to be advised 277
            12.4.2  Access to public laws 279
            12.4.3  Access to information and rule of law 282
            12.4.4  Additional economic capacity 283
    12.5  Electronic voting 284

13.  ELECTRONIC LEGAL INFORMATION 287
    13.1  Legal information 287
    13.2  Legal end other sources on the Internet 288
    13.3  Intranet and internal hypertext information system 298
    13.4  Electronic citing 300

14.  MAIN REFERENCES 303

15.  GLOSSARY 305
    15.1  English - Slovenian glossary 305
    15.2  Terms explanations 308

16.  ABBREVIATIONS 1

INDEX (Slovenian only) 299